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    清代婚俗:典妻雇妻租妻共妻样样全

    清代婚俗:典妻雇妻租妻共妻样样全


    来源:中国爱情文化网   文章作者:佚名  点击次数:

      典妻制度是人类买卖婚姻的一种,它和娼妓制度一样,都是正式婚姻制度的一种补充。它的历史可谓“渊远流长”,早在汉代就有记载。《汉书?主父偃传》记载:“男子疾耕不足粮饷,女子纺绩不足于帷幕。百姓靡敝,孤寡老弱不能相养。”由于战争频繁,大量民众无法自活,《汉书?贾捐之传》记载:“嫁妻卖子,法不能禁,义不能止。”卖妻是以妻子作为商品进行买卖,尽管还不是完整意义上的典妻婚,但它为后来的典妻现象作了准备。

      典妻现象的存在,如同中国婚姻制度的一个毒疾,让那些封建士人无法回避,又羞于启齿。到了清代,中国的典妻现象达到了“全盛”,这个词也就不断地出现在士人的著作、史家的记载里。

      典妻现象遍及全国各地,名称各不相同,“浙江宁、绍、台各属,常有典妻之风”。在北方,典妻现象曾在辽宁、甘肃一些地方传播,辽宁称为“搭伙”,甘肃叫做“僦妻”。范围很广,形式多样。

      清代典妻现象大量发生的时代背景

      第一,清军入关前后,大量抢夺他人妇女,因此民间买卖妻女之风兴盛。清初康、雍、乾三朝号称“太平盛世”,然而汪景棋在其所著的《西征随笔》中以陕西为例写到:“然督抚藩臬,皆满洲人为之。此辈不谙吏制,贪暴成性。三十年来,有司民以奉仁官。取之闾左者,十倍正供,桁杨桎梏,至卖儿贴妇以偿。”

      第二,生活极度贫困。根据毛泽东《兴国调查》中所述,我们从中不难推想清代的情形。“在兴国,地主和富农不仅有妻,还有若干妾,中农的百分之十,贫农和手工业者百分之三十,游民的百分之九十,雇农的百分之九十九,连妻子都没有。”生活的贫困使典妻现象大量存在。

      第三,出于随俗、从众的心理。据《琢县志》记述,当地民俗“尚有一种卖妻之恶风。男子家贫,嫁卖妻子以自活,女家概不干涉。且卖至某姓,女家与某姓依然以亲戚相往来。其不讲礼教之过,有如此者”。

      第四,夫权思想的影响很深,妇女地位十分低下。封建婚姻是建立在女性对男性的人身依附关系基础上,女子一旦结婚,就成为男性家族的私属物;妇女没有政治地位,只能依附于丈夫,夫荣妻荣,夫损妻损;妇女没有经济权力,必须依靠男子生存,受其支配。妻子的作用在于“上承先祖,下继万世”,如果男人不能自活,典妻也就顺理成章了。

      第五,清代社会通奸现象的大量存在,引起了众多的休妻事件。据中国第一历史档案馆所藏“婚姻奸情类”档案数统计,乾隆年间,各省区每年上报朝廷批决的婚姻类命案要案平均在800件左右。这800件中,因通奸引发的约为250-530件。

      第六,传宗接代的观念,是典妻婚的思想根源。典妻婚从表面看,好像与封建的贞节观自相矛盾,实际上正是这种封建妇德所造成的恶果。因为封建的贞节观片面要求妇女对丈夫忠贞,以保持血统的纯正。当“断子绝孙”的威胁直接关系到家族的兴衰存亡时,贞洁观只能服从“传宗接代”,正所谓“士有再娶之义,妇无二适之文”。

      第七,社会保障体制的缺失。在封建社会,农民生活极其贫困,因此很多地区的宗族组织在制定族规时都写有要求族人相互帮助的条文,如有些家谱中规定:“夫亡独可哀而节义至重,如有寡妇孤儿最宜存恤使幼有所依而节得以全。”但这种保障是有条件的,“其有媒孽夺志或谋其财产而故离其母子者众共击之甚假公以正其罪也”。

      这种互助不仅条件严格,而且在执行中效果也大打折扣,更不用说如东北地区这样的移民目的地了,人口流动使宗族组织不复存在或十分薄弱。到了清代末期随着经济的转型和外国资本的进入,农村经济的崩溃,对困难群体的保障就显得更加杯水车薪。

      清代的典妻动机

      因贫而典

      男人因为贫困而典卖妻子,这是最通常的一种情况。如“陕督题:赵成都因贫捏以已身故,托人将妻徐氏嫁

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