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    徽州建筑

    徽州建筑


    来源:中国民俗文化网   文章作者:佚名  点击次数:

        南宋迁都临安,大兴土木,筑宫殿,建园林,不仅刺激了徽商从事竹、木、漆经营,也培养了大批徽州工匠。徽州是“文化之邦”,徽商致富还乡,也争相在家乡建住宅、园林,修祠堂,立牌坊,兴道观、寺庙,从而开始和形成有徽州特色的建筑风格。
      
        本县现存的古村落雄村、江村、许等地的明清民宅,比较集中地体现了徽州建筑风格。古村落选址一般按照阴阳五行学说,周密地观察自然和利用自然,以臻天时、地利、人和和诸吉咸备,达到“天人合一”的境界。村落一般依山傍水,住宅多面临街巷,粉墙黛瓦,鳞次栉比,散落在山麓或丛林之间,浓绿与黑白相映,形成特色的风格。同时有大量的文化建筑,如书院、楼阁、祠堂、牌坊、古塔和园林杂陈其间,使得整个环境富有文化气息和园林情趣。站在高外望村落,只见白墙青瓦,层层叠叠,跌宕起伏,借落有致。
      
        在民居的外部造型上,层层跌落的马头墙高出屋脊,有的中间高两头低,微见屋脊坡顶,半掩半映,半藏半露,黑白分明;有的上端人字形斜下,两端跌落数阶,檐角青瓦起垫飞翘。在蔚蓝的天际间,勾出民居墙头与天空的轮廓线,增加了空间的层次和韵律美,体现了天人之间的和谐。


       
        民宅多为楼房,以四水归堂的开井院落为单元,少则2-3个,多则10多个,最多达24个、36个。随着时间推移和人口增长,单元还可以不断增添、扩展和完善,符合徽人崇尚几代同堂、几房同堂的习俗。民居前后或侧旁,设有庭院和小花园,置石桌石凳,掘水井鱼池,植花卉果木,甚至叠果木,甚至叠假山、造流泉、饰漏窗,交夫和自然谐和一体。在内部装饰上力求精美,梁栋檩板无不描金绘彩,尤其是充分运用木、砖、石雕艺术,在斗拱飞檐、窗棂(木鬲)扇、门罩屋翎、花门栏杆、神位龛座上,精雕细缕。内容有日月云涛、山水楼台等景物,花草虫鱼、飞禽走兽等画面,传说故事、神话历史等戏文,还有耕织渔樵、仕学孝悌等民情。题村广泛,内容丰富,雕刻精美,活生生一部明清风情长卷,赋予原本呆滞、单调的静体以生命,使之跃跃欲动,栩栩如生。
      
        境内还保存众多的明清祠堂、牌坊,建筑风格也颇具特色,与明清民居称为“古建三绝”。矗立于县城的许国石坊、北岸吴氏祠堂的石雕《百鹿图》和《西湖风景》,大阜潘氏祠堂的“五凤楼”砖雕和《百马图》木雕,分别体现了徽派“三雕”艺术的最高水平。


    ·上一篇文章:江南水乡
    ·下一篇文章:陕西这个九十年代的黄土高塬民俗村,看看现在啥样子


     

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