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    神奇的客家土楼

    神奇的客家土楼


    来源:中国民俗文化网   文章作者:佚名  点击次数:

         参观各式建筑往往是旅游中的重头戏,从帝王宫殿到普通民居,从万里长城到亭台楼阁,每一处建筑都有它看不够、道不完的精致与美妙。然而在福建的西部我见到了最令人震惊的民居建筑——客家土楼,其外观既可以与古罗马雄伟的竞技场相媲美,又让人怀疑许多现代体育馆的设计是不是受了它的影响。由于土楼独特的造型,庞大的气势及防潮抗震等优势被誉为世界上独一无二的神话般的民居建筑。
       
        客家的来历
       
        要想真正认识土楼,不得不从客家文化说起。在福建这个朗润明丽的南国花园里,除了它特有的亚热带风光之外,最具特色也最神秘的就要数客家文化了。
       
        福建是我国古代古越族文化的发源地,相传西晋末年,由于中原的征战不断,黄河流域的一部分汉人为了避免战乱而南徒渡江,来到现江西、福建及广东北部,为有别于当地原有居民,被称之为“客家”,客家人在漫长的历史过程中演绎出一部属于他们自已的独特文化。
       
        福建的客家文化,集中在闽西,以长汀为中心的地区。“客家“二字所代表的大概就是那听不懂的客家方言、看不够的客家土楼及数不清的客家祠堂吧。
       
        初识客家土楼
       
        土楼是以土作墙而建造起来的集体建筑,呈圆形、半圆形、方形、四角形、五角形、交椅形、畚箕形等,各具特色,其中以圆形的最引人注目,当地人称之为圆楼或圆寨。
       
        土楼属于集体性建筑,其最大的特点在于其造型大,无论从远处还是走到跟前,土楼都以其庞大的单体式建筑令人震惊,其体积之大,堪称民居之最。在我们参观的土楼中最普通的圆楼,其直径大约为50余米,三、四层楼的高度,共有百余间住房,可住三、四十户人家,可容纳二三百人。而大型圆楼直径可达七八十米,高五六层,内有四五百间住房,可住七八百人。从土楼这种民居建筑方式体现了客家人聚族而居的民俗风情。
       
        从历史学及建筑学的研究来看,土楼的建筑方式是出于族群安全而采取的一种自卫式的居住样式。在当时外有倭寇入侵,内有年年内战的情势之下,举族迁移的客家人不远千里来到他乡,选择一种既有利于家族团聚,又能防御战争的建筑方式便被采纳下来。同一个祖先的子孙们在一幢土楼里形成一个独立的社会,共存共荣,共亡共辱。所以御外凝内大概是土楼最恰当的归纳。
       
        圆楼是当地土楼群中最具特色的建筑,一般它以一个圆心出发,依不同的半径,一层层向外展开,如同湖中的水波,环环相套,非常壮观。其最中心处为家族祠院,向外依次为祖堂,围廊,最外一环住人。整个土楼房间大小一致,面积约十平方米左右,使用共同的楼梯,各家风乎无秘密可言。
       
        土楼结构有许多种类型,其中一种是内部有上、中、下三堂沿中心轴线纵深排列的三堂制,在这样的土楼内,一般下堂为出入口,放在最前边;中堂居于中心,是家族聚会、迎宾待客的地方;上堂居于最里边,是供奉祖先牌位的地方。
       
        除了结构上的独特外,土楼内部窗台、门廊、檐角等也极尽华丽精巧,实为中国民居建筑中的奇葩。


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