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    哈尼族蘑菇房

    哈尼族蘑菇房


    来源:中国民俗文化网   文章作者:佚名  点击次数:

        村寨错落有致
       
        哈尼族居住在向阳的山腰,依傍山势建立村寨。村寨一般为三四十户,多至数百户。村寨背后是郁郁葱葱的古树丛林,周围绿竹青翠,棕樟挺拨,间以桃树梨树,村前梯田层层延伸到河谷底。离村寨不远有清澈酣凉的泉水井。一栋栋哈尼族住房结合地形沿坡布局,高低错落有致,别有一番朴实多变的景象。
       
        满山遍野长蘑菇
       
        传说远古时,哈尼人住的是山洞,山高路陡,出门劳作很不方便。后来他们迁徙到一个名叫“惹罗”的地方时,看到满山遍野生长着大朵大朵的蘑菇,它们不怕风吹雨打,还能让蚂蚁和小虫在下面做窝栖息,他们就比着样子盖起了蘑菇房。
       
        蘑菇房琳麋美观,独具一格。即使是寒气袭人的严冬,屋里也是暖融融的;而赤日炎炎的夏天,屋里却十分凉爽。以哈尼族最大的村寨红河州元阳县麻栗寨最为典型。
       
        蘑菇分层散香气
       
        哈尼族的蘑菇房状如蘑菇,由土基墙、竹木架和茅草顶成。屋顶为四个斜坡面。房子分层:底层关牛马堆放农具等;中层用木板铺设,隔成左、中、右三间,中间设有一个常年烟火不断的方形火塘;顶层则用泥土覆盖,既能防火,又可堆放物品。
       
        房屋建筑以土石为主要墙体材料。屋顶有平顶的“土掌房”和双斜面四斜面的茅草房。因地形陡斜,缺少平地,平顶房较为普遍,既可防火,又便於用屋顶晒粮,空间得到充分利用。
       
        客人来到,热情的主人就会请你围坐在火塘边,让你吸上一阵长长的水烟筒,饮上一杯热腾腾的“糯米香茶”,喝上一碗香喷喷的“闷锅酒”。趁着酒兴,主人敞开嗓子,向你展示哈尼人像哀牢山的竹子一样有枝有节有根的歌声,并祝愿宾客吉祥如意、情深谊长。
       
        有史以来,哈尼人迁徙到哪里,蘑菇房就盖到哪里,遍布哈尼山乡,经长期的发展与改进,现在的蘑菇房既有传统特色又日臻完善,与巍峨的山峰,迷人的云海、多姿的梯田,成了一幅奇妙的哀牢山壮景。


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