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    南方自由式民居

    南方自由式民居


    来源:中国民俗文化网   文章作者:佚名  点击次数:

        自由式民居指不采用院落形式,总体构成和单体造型都十分自由的民居,主要分布在南方乡野和小城镇,多为中下阶层所用。
       
        自由式民居多数规模较小,特别重视空间的合理利用,不特别强调礼法制度,一切在其他民居中特别重视的尊卑上下亲疏的区分,在这里都不太受重视,设计思想近于"功能主义"。但它们仍然追求造型的完美,因为冲脱了礼制的约束,思想解放,组合灵活,所以更加多样。自由式民居的造型特点为:
       
        1,多数是在平面和屋顶都相连的一栋建筑上,施展多样手法,创造出内部上下左右都可走通的丰富空间,外向则开敞显露,不用院墙,和自然溶成一体;
       
        2,形式自由,不求规整对称。或屋坡前小后大,或楼房与平房毗连,或屋顶上又部分高出为阁楼,或在外墙某处局部挑出悬楼,上覆披檐;平面有一字形、曲尺形或各种无以名之的形状。内部空间富于变化,常在屋顶下铺板为阁楼,阁楼或在前坡、后坡,或在中部。地面随基地标高的不同,不同室可以有高有低,同室也可不在同一平面,或房屋一面和另一面的层数不同。总之,与规整式民居比较,处理无所成见,完全依据现场情况而定,极尽变化之妙;
       
        3,这些变化多是使用称为“穿斗架”的一种民间轻便构架完成的,仅只作一些简单的处理,便可巧变万端,显示了极大的灵活性;
       
        4,所用材料都是土生土长最易得最经济的产品,以小青瓦或茅草铺顶,以小青砖、编笆抹灰、木板、乱石、块石或泥土筑墙。木不加彩,墙圬而已,随宜而用,形成了色彩、肌理、质感的自然对比。墙面上自然暴露木结构,显出其结构穿插之美,另有一种单纯天真的趣味。


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