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    四合院的影壁

    四合院的影壁


    来源:中国民俗文化网   文章作者:佚名  点击次数:

        影壁是北京四合院大门内外的重要装饰壁面,主要作用在于遮挡大门内外杂乱呆板的墙面和景物,美化大门的出人口,人们进出宅门时,迎面看到的首先是叠砌考究、雕饰精美的墙面和镶嵌在上面的吉辞颂语。
       
        四合院常见的影壁有三种,第一种位于大门内侧,呈一字形叫做一字影壁。大门内的一字影壁有独立于厢房山墙或隔墙之间的,称为独立影壁,如果在厢房的山墙上直接砌出小墙帽并做出影壁形状,使影壁与山墙连为一体,则称为座山影壁。
       
        第二种是位于大门外面的影壁,这种影壁座落在胡同对面,正对宅门,一般有两种形状,平面呈“一”字形的,叫一字影壁,平面成“冖”形的,称雁翅影壁。这两种影壁或单独立于对面宅院墙壁之外,或倚砌于对面宅院墙壁,主要用于遮挡对面房屋和不甚整齐的房角檐头,使经大门外出的人有整齐美观愉悦的感受。
       
        还有一种影壁,位于大门的的东西两侧,与大门檐口成120度或135度夹角,平面呈/\字形,称做“反八字影壁”或“撇山影壁”。做这种反八字影壁时,大门要向里退进2-4米,在门前形成一个小空间,可做为进出大门的缓冲之地。在反八字影壁的烘托陪衬下,宅门显得更加深邃、开阔、富丽。
       
        四合院宅门的影壁,绝大部分为砖料砌成。影壁分为上、中、下三部分,下为基座,中间为影壁心部分,影壁上部为墙帽部分,仿佛一间房的屋顶和檐头。
       
        影壁与大门有互相陪衬,互相烘托的关系,二者密不可分,它虽然是一座墙壁,但由于设计巧妙,施工精细,在四合院入口处起着烘云托月,画龙点睛的作用。


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