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    维吾尔族的食俗

    维吾尔族的食俗


    来源:中国民俗文化网   文章作者:佚名  点击次数:

      维吾尔族居住在新疆维吾尔自治区,其人种和语言属于土耳其民族系统,人口约六百五十万人分布于新疆全境的城市和乡村中。
      维吾尔族的祖先是骑马游牧民族。汉代时,匈奴在亚洲部高原上十分活跃。后来,阿尔泰语族的游牧帝国与匈奴的抗争连年不断,唐天宝三年在突厥的北方过着游牧生活的铁勒部族的一支回纥(即维吾尔族)取代东突厥,在蒙古北部鄂尔浑河流域建立起了游牧国家。此后,维吾尔族与唐朝的关系不断加深。
      九世纪下半叶以后,维吾尔族被赶出蒙古北部高原,他们经河西走廊迁徙到今天的新疆维吾尔族自治区内。此后,维吾尔族的饮食从原来的以肉、乳为主转变为以谷物为主、以肉为辅对维吾尔族来说,更大的社会变动是宗教上的变化。很久以前沿丝绸之路翻越帕米尔高原向东发展的摩尼教和佛教势力,到十三世纪为止,在同伊斯兰教徒进行的宗教战争中均失败。于是,这一地区彻底变成了伊斯兰教的社会。维吾尔族全族改信伊斯兰教,其饮食文化也加入到伊斯兰教饮食圈子中去了。
      反映在维吾尔人今天的日常饮食中的饮食文化,不仅包括该民族作为土耳其民族的一支从上古游牧时代留传下来的传统饮食文化和维吾尔族改宗伊斯兰教后形成的饮食文化,而且还包括该民族同周围其它民族和地区的交流中产生的多彩的饮食文化。这种多彩的饮食文化与居住在装新疆地区的维吾尔族是十分相称的。因为这一地区曾作为东西方文明的交流路线,在历史上发挥了重要的作用。可以说,这一地区也是东西方饮食文化的交汇点。
      维吾尔族的饮食文化中最有代表性的食品是烤羊肉串(维吾尔语称之为“嘎巴布”)。从西亚各地到乌鲁木齐的街头都能见到这种食品。羊肉趾看上去像是来自西方,但实际上是土耳其民族固有的食品。
      与羊肉串不同,谷类、粉食类食品中的用小麦粉和杂谷粉烤制的饼状的馕,可以看作是从西方传入的中近东类型的饮食文化。
      面类食品中的拉面已普及到维吾尔族的千家万户中,其制作方法有两种:一种是像纺线一样把面条依次拉长放入锅中;另一种是用两手将一根面条加倍式地反复重叠拉长的方法。这些拉面可以看作是起源于汉族的拉面文化。
      至于米饭的吃法,维吾尔族通常是把米饭制作成称作“朴劳”的什锦炒饭(即抓饭)。人们在米饭中放入羊肉、蔬菜和葡萄。食用时用右手的三个指头抓食。吃饭的这种方式,也属于伊斯兰教的饮食文化。汉族的把米煮成粥的饮食方法没有传入维吾尔族。


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