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    筷子的传说

    筷子的传说


    来源:《筷子三千年》   文章作者:佚名  点击次数:

      现在世界上人类进食的工具主要分为3类:欧洲和北美用刀、叉、匙,一餐饭三器并用;中国、日本、越南、韩国和朝鲜等用筷;非洲、中东、印尼及印度次大陆以手指抓食。美国加利福尼亚大学名誉教授怀特调查后说:”“用刀叉、手指和筷子吃饭的3类人,都以强硬态度维护自己的餐具。”特别是以手抓食者,常被人看作不文明,可他们却自我感觉良好。例如美国洛杉矶有一家菲律宾餐馆,大做广告以抓食为荣,公开警告那些不愿以手抓饭的顾客,谢绝他们光临。
      中国是筷子的发源地,以筷进餐少说已有3000年历史,是世界上以筷为食的母国。筷子看起来只是非常简单的两根小细棒,但它有挑、拨、夹、拌、扒等功能,且使用方便,价廉物美。筷子也是当今世界上一种独特的餐具。凡是使用过筷子者,不论华人或是老外,无不钦佩筷子的发明者。可是它是何人发明?何时创造诞生?现在谁也无法回答这个问题。堂堂中华古国,都找不到记载这一对人类文明做出伟大贡献的点滴文字资料,也许是我们的先民当时缺少文字,或是记录筷子的书籍佚失殆尽?总之,回答这个悬案的只有“史无记载”4个字。当然,研究筷箸文化,也不是找不到任何旁证材料。笔者曾先后收集到3个有关筷子起源的传说。
    姜子牙与筷子
      这一传说流传于四川等地,说的是姜子牙只会直钩钓鱼,其他事一件也不会干,所以十分穷困。他老婆实在无法跟他过苦日子,就想将他害死另嫁他人。
      这天姜子牙钓鱼又两手空空回到家中,老婆说:“你饿了吧?我给你烧好了肉,你快吃吧!”姜子牙确实饿了,就伸手去抓肉。窗外突然飞来一只鸟,啄了他一口。他疼得“阿呀”一声,肉没吃成,忙去赶鸟。当他第二次去拿肉时,鸟又啄他的手背。姜子牙犯疑了,鸟为什么两次啄我,难道这肉我吃不得?为了试鸟,他第三次去抓肉,这时鸟又来啄他。姜子牙知道这是一只神鸟,于是装着赶鸟一直追出门去,直追到一个无人的山坡上。神鸟栖在一枝丝竹上,并呢喃鸣唱:“姜子牙呀姜子牙,吃肉不可用手抓,夹肉就在我脚下…。”姜子牙听了神鸟的指点,忙摘了两根细丝竹回到家中。这时老婆又催他吃肉,姜子牙于是将两根丝竹伸进碗中夹肉,突然看见丝竹咝咝地冒出一股股青烟。姜子牙假装不知放毒之事,对老婆说:“肉怎么会冒烟,难道有毒?”说着,姜子牙夹起肉就向老婆嘴里送。老婆脸都吓白了,忙逃出门去。
      姜子牙明白这丝竹是神鸟送的神竹,任何毒物都能验出来,从此每餐都用两根丝竹进餐。此事传出后,他老婆不但不敢再下毒,而且四邻也纷纷学着用竹枝吃饭。后来效仿的人越来越多,用筷吃饭的习俗也就一代代传了下来。
      这个传说显然是崇拜姜子牙的产物,与史料记载也不符。殷纣王时代已出现了象牙筷,姜子牙和殷纣王是同时代的人,既然纣王已经用上象牙筷,那姜子牙的丝竹筷也就谈不上什么发明创造了。不过有一点却是真实的,那就是商代南方以竹为筷。
    妲已与筷子
      这个传说流传于江苏一带。说的是商纣正喜怒无常,吃饭时不是说鱼肉不鲜,就是说鸡汤太烫,有时又说菜肴冰凉不能入口。结果,很多厨师成了他的刀下之鬼。宠妃妲已也知道他难以侍奉,所以每次摆酒设宴,她都要事先尝一尝,免得纣王咸淡不可口又要发怒。有一次,妲已尝到有几碗佳肴太烫,可是调换己来不及了,因为纣王已来到餐桌前。妲已为讨得纣王的欢心,急中生智,忙取下头上长长玉簪将莱夹起来,吹了又吹,等菜凉了一些再送入纣王口中。纣王是荒淫无耻之徒,他认为由妲已夹菜喂饭是件享乐之事,于是天天要妲已如此。妲已即让工匠为她特制了两根长玉簪夹菜,这就是玉筷的雏形。以后这种夹菜的方式传到了民间,便产生了筷子。
      这则传说,不像第一个传说充满着神话色彩,而比较贴近生活,有某些现实意义,但依然富于传奇性,也与史实不符。

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