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    佛教音乐:抢救比发展更重要

    佛教音乐:抢救比发展更重要


    来源:网络   文章作者:周芳  点击次数:

    智化寺京音乐演奏现场 (资料图片)

      在佛教进入我国的同时,佛教音乐也随之而来。由于在传播过程中的语言问题,佛教音乐必然本土化。本土化了的佛教音乐在一开始是丰富的,除了有“梵呗”、“转读”、“唱导”等多种诵经形式外,还形成了不同风格的曲调和流派。但是,从近20多年来专家学者对佛教音乐的调查和对文献资料的研究来看,我国佛教音乐整体上萎缩了。基于此,第二届世界佛教论坛中的有关佛教音乐文化的研讨应运而生,众多专家学者在重视文化多样性、保护民族文化的共识中,共同探讨“为防止佛教音乐文化的日渐失传,应大力收集、梳理佛教音乐历史文献,抢救、保护佛教音乐文化遗产”这一重大课题。

      智化寺、五台山:昔日多少风采

      2006年,北京智化寺京音乐和山西五台山佛教音乐进入国务院公布的《第一批国家级非物质文化遗产代表作名录》保护体系中。

      “这一事件标志着佛教界本身和社会各界佛教音乐保护意识的觉醒。佛教音乐在近2000年的发展过程中,始终根植于中国传统音乐之中并随着中国传统音乐的发展而传承。中国的佛教音乐实际上是中国传统音乐中不可分割的组成部分,理应成为中国非物质文化遗产的一部分。”中国艺术研究院音乐研究所研究员项阳在接受记者采访时说。

      上世纪50年代,著名的乐律学家潘怀素以及著名音乐史学家杨荫浏等先后造访了位于北京东城区的智化寺,之后,他们的学生辈的学者又掀起了对该寺院新的关注热潮。智化寺虽然从规模上来讲并不算大,其声望在北京的寺院中也不算高,但却能够引起音乐学界的不断关注,关键在于这里的僧人们传承着历史悠久的中国传统乐曲。

      智化寺建于1444年,为明朝宦官王振的家庙。权倾一时的王振在1446年将紫禁城的皇家乐谱偷出来在自己的家庙演奏,皇家音乐因此开始在民间流传,并发展成独具特色的智化寺佛教音乐,称之为京音乐。上世纪80年代是智化寺京音乐的鼎盛时期,十几位艺僧曾经到欧洲演出,引起欧洲音乐界的关注,并获得很高的声誉。

      “与智化寺一样,五台山音乐也曾经有过辉煌的历史。从元、明时期乐器进入佛事起,五台山音乐就自成一派,被佛教界尊为‘北方派’的代表。”山西省音乐舞蹈曲艺研究所副所长韩军研究五台山音乐多年,他告诉记者,民国前五台山的青庙(汉传佛教寺庙)就有大型的十寺大法会。在法会上,五台山十大寺庙每庙要出一人组成乐队,参加仪式的伴奏或念诵。另外,在1986年发现的五台山《吉祥会解》的抄本中,有40首左右演唱和演奏的曲牌。从这里可以看出五台山佛教音乐曾有过的规模和丰富程度。

      据了解,“北方佛事”和“南方佛事”的主要区别在于是否使用乐器伴奏诵经。在上世纪30年代中期,无论北方的五台山、南方的潮州寺庙,还是西边的峨眉山,在佛教佛事中都还使用着乐器,这些乐器既为诵经伴奏,又演奏乐曲,听起来各有风韵,是非常艺术化的。但是现在,除五台山还有少量残缺的佛教音乐保存外,其它地方恐怕已经“变化”了,最起码这些地方已经不使用乐器了。

      曾经的传统只是今天舞台上的表演

      据韩军介绍,最早将乐器引入佛事并自成一派的五台山音乐,经历了初始、成型、完善以及衰微的过程,衰微是从民国初开始的,其后更是每况愈下,这个转变也可以折射出我国佛事音乐的变化。如今,无论是十寺大法会,还是吉祥会解法会,都早已不作,而且连知道这种法会的僧人也几乎没有了。在2007年的调查中,五台山的青庙只有两座寺庙可以做传统的“北方佛事”,而且乐曲也少了许多;在黄庙(藏传佛教寺庙),也只有一两个庙的僧人凑在一起才能做起带乐器的佛事来。

      同样的情况也发生在智化寺。上世纪80年代后,随着老艺僧们陆续圆寂,智化寺的音乐已经难以为继,到9

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