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    浅谈梅山地区木匠技艺的传承习俗

    浅谈梅山地区木匠技艺的传承习俗


    来源:中国民俗文化网   文章作者:黄伟庐  点击次数:

      木业,是专门以木材为原料加工制作器物的行业。木匠,是专门从事木业的手艺人。梅山古艺将梅山地区“百匠”叫“手艺”。工匠如石匠、木匠、篾匠、瓦匠等,他们大都身怀绝技,具有鲜明的梅山文化烙印,在漫长的岁月里,这些匠人以师带徒的形式,让民间技艺代代传承。

      一、梅山地区木匠技艺简述

      木匠,是专门从事木业的手艺人。在梅山地区,木匠为匠人之首,民间有“木秀才”之誉称。木匠,又分为大作、圆作、弯作、船作、雕花作、锯匠等六支。大作专事修造房屋,制作箱橱桌椅板凳等家具用品。因所制器物多为方形,又称为方作。圆作主要打制各种圆形和扁形的木桶木盆。弯作以修造耕耘用的犁耙农具和辗屋器具为主,因那些器具多为弯状木料,故称弯作。船作专业钉制水上船舶。雕花作又称细作,以雕造小巧精美器物,雕琢花鸟虫鱼为业。清代蒲松龄《木匠》诗就反映出鲁班是木匠工具的发明者:“木匠祖师是鲁班,家伙学成载一船。斧凿铲钻寻常用,曲尺墨斗有师传。”《鲁班经》一直被后世木匠奉为经典,所记上梁仪式也沿袭下来。房主要预先择定上梁的吉日良辰,木工按期上梁。正梁中间画有八卦图,用红、绿、黄、白、青五色布包裹银元或铜钱放梁正中间。木工掌墨师傅,把斧头、墨斗、曲尺放在桌子上,五尺斜靠在桌子前方;瓦工的瓦刀、挂尺放在右前方。东家和木瓦工都要洗手洗脸,家主点烛燃香,请木工上梁。木工掌墨师傅走到桌前,口中念叨:“伏以!鲁班来得迟,正是上梁时。”早晨则曰:“鲁班来得早,此刻上梁好。”木工把青布搭在梁上,从梁头搭在梁尾,将五尺红布挂在梁上,斧头红系在斧头把上,点香并向上作揖,转身向前门作一揖,在大门前插一炷香,瓦刀底下插一炷香,开始封梁。石匠师傅站左边,木匠师傅站右边。然后祭酒,师傅拿起酒壶道:“有请众神仙,师尊齐享用。一请天地水府,二请日月三光,三请开夯老祖,四请紫薇中央,五请老君先师,六请风伯雨师,七请玄老师尊,八请蒋太真人,九请九天玄女,十请玉皇大帝。”还有地方风俗,要在梁上贴红纸写有“上梁大吉”等字符,还有贴道家符咒的,梁上挂小弓箭的……木匠技艺复杂,制作对象繁多,规格尺寸全凭记忆。榫、眼、角、丝毫不能差错,特别是起木屋楼宇时,上百支梁柱、川方、楼袱、地脚、爽敦、椽领、机方撑木等组件,上万个榫眼、钉栅,必须对接得天衣无缝。“上梁不正下梁歪”的民间俗语就来源于此。那时没有图纸,全凭一支竹子剖开制成的“丈管”记录下全部尺寸规格。确实是件不易的事。怪不得木匠一定要学“三年帮一年”才能出师自立呢。

      木匠的主要工具有:锛、凿、斧、锯、刨、锤、钻、铲、锉、尺、墨斗等。按制作物件,木匠要先以尺寸下料,用墨斗弹线,然后沿线锯木解板等。将锯开的木料用刨子推平,这叫刮料。木工初学一定要学推刨子,刨子种类很多,常见的有大刨、二刨、小净刨,还有拉刨。大刨主要是刮平,小刨主要是净面。刮刨时眼睛要往前看,刨几刨瞄一瞄,达到平光为准。刮平的标准是放料板时落地不响,特别是刮平的板料面贴面放不许有声音,这既需要有臂力又需要很好的眼力,更重要的是还得使料的宽窄薄厚一致。检验刮料技巧的是沿缝、粘板儿。木匠凿眼看似简单,实则不易。凿眼要求不歪不扭,凿出的直眼要像铸的一样方正。有经验的木匠“前打后跟,越掏越深”。木匠用卯榫制作的家具一颗钉不用,又结实又美观,“钩心斗角”的古建筑,大地震过后而不倒,这种卯榫技术,既艺术又科学,令世界折服。木匠斧子一面开刃,一面平,俗语说:“木匠斧子一面砍。”赞木匠对联:曲尺能成方圆器,直线调就栋梁材,锯子劈开新世界,斧头砍去旧东西。

      二、梅山地区木匠技艺的传承习俗

      学徒先得拜师。无师自通的木匠,在梅山地区称为“蛮木匠”。名师出高徒。高徒是师承精湛技业,又懂行业规矩的。行业规矩是一个行业经历许多年代,经过反复实践,摸索,提炼,总结出的施业经验和规范准则,涉及人品修为和专业技术。这些经验和规范准则必须符合本地的文化思想意识,被社会和业内接受认可,同时能够便于本行业操作,又与其他行业有所区别。没经过艰苦的学徒生活磨砺,没有优秀师傅的科班传授,就没有行业规矩,也就没有规范的施业操作。木匠学徒多是未婚的年轻后生,一般年龄在十八、九岁,二十岁左右。木匠学徒从第一天学徒生涯开始,干的就是力气活儿。刮拉凿砍锛,没力气是不行的。“老先生,少木匠”。木匠这个行当,是年轻力壮人干的,人老了,虽有多年的技艺,但没了强壮的身体,就吃不开了。所谓“老先生”,指的是看阴阳风水的先生和给人看病的先生(医生),这些先生越老越被人看重。“架得五山倒,才砍六山柴”。木匠学徒最好要有健康而且强壮的身体,这是以后当一个优秀木匠的重要条件。

      学木匠拜师,一般在正月大年初五,由保人---街面上有头面的人,领着拜师人到师傅家,引荐之后,由保人当面讲明师徒之间的约定。主要约定是:学徒期限为三年零一节(学徒三年后到第四年的端午节,农历五月初五),中途不准退师;学徒期间不开工钱;学徒期间不准结婚成家;师傅打骂徒弟,万一打失手,不偿命;师傅负责徒弟的穿衣吃饭。这些条款,保人早已对徒弟及其家人预先讲妥,这时是正式宣布生效。拜师人点头表示同意,然后认师行礼,跪地磕头。第一个头是要磕给祖师鲁班的,还有张良先师、斧头凿把先师、曲尺墨斗先师,那里摆放着一张锯和一把斧子。由师傅念叨一声:给祖师爷磕头!徒弟冲屋子正面墙方向磕头就是了。然后给师傅磕头。师母若在场,自然也要磕头礼认。大礼行过,拜师仪式结束。仪式虽然简单,约定也未写在纸上,但效力却是不容置疑的。

      “一日为师,终生为父”,这是社会上和行业内人人认可的信条。徒弟一生都以父礼尊崇师傅。“师徒如父子”,师傅如爱自己孩子一般爱护教育徒弟。拜师仪式完成,徒弟就留住在了师傅家。除非师徒两家十分临近,徒弟才回自己家住。“要想会,跟师傅睡”。只有常和师傅在一起,一起干活,一起生活,关系上成为师傅家庭中的一员,感情上达到亲如父子的程度,师傅传艺自然会尽心尽力。有不少需用“意”传的道理,有时就含在师傅的“闲话”里,常在左右,能从师傅的话语中悟出很多东西。木匠学徒不能说很苦,但确实很累。徒弟要勤快。早上必须早早起床,先收拾好自己的事。待师傅起床后,给师傅倒尿壶,打洗脸水是必干的活,然后干些杂活。等师傅洗漱完毕,收拾整齐,即与师傅一起去雇主家。拜师后的第二天,徒弟就要随师傅上工干活了。徒弟跟随了师傅,师傅就要对徒弟负责。人身安全,自我保护。木匠外出做活儿,免不了晚归走夜路,随身带把锛子或带根伍尺,既能壮胆,也确能防身。伍尺和锛子在木匠工具中,算是长“兵器”了。斧子虽然也可以带着防身,但其形象似有拦路剪径之嫌。斧子人人可有,锛子和伍尺却是木匠独有的,随身带着,既当用,又不显露本意。做木架,占用场地大,只能露天作业。约定中虽有师傅包徒弟吃饭一款,实际上,除了个别歇工日外,木匠一日三餐都在雇主家吃。所以早上外出的很早,步行到雇主家,先搬出工具干一阵子活儿,雇主家也预备好早饭了。晚上收工后,吃罢晚饭,回家时常常是暮色苍茫。

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