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    宋人眼里荒唐离奇的北地胡风民俗

    宋人眼里荒唐离奇的北地胡风民俗


    来源:中国艺术传播网   文章作者:佚名  点击次数:

    也许是终宋一朝,华夏民族始终被北方的契丹族和女真族所侵扰,宋代文人心中郁闷;也许是宋朝人始终以天朝大国自居,看不上这些荒野蛮族的风俗习惯。在宋代文人眼里,居住在白山黑水之间的女真人也好,居住在松辽之间的契丹人也好,都是一群化外之人,缺少教养和驯化,其举止行为异常可笑,而素来以传统文化自居的宋朝人,以有色眼镜看待北方少数民族的习俗,在今人看来,亦显得颟顸和过于迂腐。

    那么在宋代文人眼里,北方少数民族都有哪些“离经叛道”、“荒诞不经”的习俗呢?或者换句话说,契丹和女真族都有哪些让人匪夷所思、饶有趣味的风俗呢?宋代文人笔下给我们呈现出了一种精彩纷呈的异域文化,而中华民族恰是在这种包容兼蓄,不断积淀和融化的氛围中才形成了博大精深的民族文化,以及中华民族大一统的向心力和凝聚力。

    宋朝人认为女真部族,民风淳厚质朴,但是部族首领却不知道尊卑贵贱,更不知道怎样在日常社交礼仪中维护自己的权威和尊严,于是在宋人眼里,女真人为庆贺酿酒成功,杀鸡宰羊,载歌载舞,无分男女、贵贱、长幼席地而座,无论主人宾客还是部族首领均翩翩起舞,以示幸福祥和的生活,并矜夸自己所产美酒的狂欢行为是一种不可思议有失伦理的荒唐表现,且以正统文化和道德标榜者的身份予以指责,而女真人这种率性而为天性的自然流露,随着汉文化的不断融合,竟然也自认为此风不端,有失人臣之分,而渐行废止,可见汉文化的卫道士们内心里还是值得沾沾自喜的。

    在北方少数民族政权中,也流行“杖责”,上至宰辅和王公贵族,下至各级官吏,作奸犯科者亦不能免杖,宋人天真的认为此乃天朝大国之威望被蛮夷们借鉴效仿,接着笔锋一转,笑话这些蛮夷们的发扬光大,说虏中有忤逆上意者,则剥去其人衣物,先杖击其口,然后止足,全身上下打遍,此为“御断”。如果州县一官之长犯事,则派遣天使不远千里赶到其家实行杖击,此名又叫“监断”,也有因此在杖下毙命者,而所有被杖击之人,则坦然受之,不以为辱,孰不知有古训“刑不上大夫”之说?宋朝官员确实优越,而刑不上大夫确实也做到了,皇帝即使对官员再不满意,宋朝三百年间也没打过屁屁,宋人绝没有想到,后来到了明朝嘉靖皇帝时候,居然创下了一百二十四名大臣同日被梃杖,十六人当场死亡的世界纪录,读书人可谓颜面尽失,斯文扫地,文臣的贱命在皇帝眼里不值一文。

    北方少数民族婚姻风俗也让宋人取笑,北人娶妇于家,如果其丈夫不幸身死,不会象中原汉人一样将女人遣送回家,而是让兄弟子侄辈得以续聘,甚至出现了儿子娶其继母的情况,宋人大发感慨,认为蛮夷们如猪狗之辈,全然不知道礼法,而汉族人则断不会做此禽兽之举。更让宋人忿忿不平且难以理喻的是北方这些民族每逢正月十六日这一天,是官方默许的偷盗之夜,是为“放偷”,平常人家若不留意,则衣裳、器具、鞍马、车驾等物被人名正言顺偷盗,等过些时日,主人知其所在,则以酒食、钱物赎回。更有甚者,平常人家女子随家人野外游玩,或者其家居住荒郊偏僻之处,年青女子就会被男子掳掠,过段时间,这些女子就会悄然回家,并将经过告知父母,男子则以财礼聘娶其女,这可能是契丹和女真版最早的“偷情”和“试婚”了,在宋人看来,此实为大逆不道和难以容忍的秽闻。

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