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    齐鲁文化—鲁文化在中国上古文化中的地位

    齐鲁文化—鲁文化在中国上古文化中的地位


    来源:中国民俗文化网   文章作者:佚名  点击次数:

    在中国上古时期,由于山川阻隔,交通极为不便。西周以来,以各个重要的诸侯封国为中心,逐渐形成了各具特色的区域文化。在众多的区域文化中,鲁国的文化居于一种领先的、中心的地位。

    第一,鲁国受封之地早已经是中国文化最为发达的地区之一。

    山东被称为“齐鲁之邦”,先秦时期,鲁国和齐国分处于泰山南、北,在泰山以南(今鲁南)地区,已发现了众多的原始文化遗迹。“沂源人”与“北京人”时代相当,他们可能是这里古人类的祖先。以之为中心,仅其附近便发现了猿人化石和近百个旧石器和新石器地点,说明这里是几十万年以来古人类活动的重要中心之一。更为重要的是,进入新石器时代以来,这里更有北辛文化、大汶口文化、龙山文化一脉相连,在鲁南地区形成了中国史前文化的完整序列。《帝王世纪》云:“炎帝自陈营都于鲁曲阜。黄帝自穷桑登帝位,后徙曲阜。少昊邑于穷桑,以登帝位,都曲阜。颛顼始都穷桑,都商丘。”张守节《史记正义》曰:“穷桑在鲁北,或云穷桑即曲阜也。又为大庭氏之故国,又是商奄之地。”远古时代许多氏族首领都与曲阜有关,这种现象不是偶然的。

    周初,伯禽为首的周人来到曲阜一带后,这里又成为东西文化的交汇之地。殷商兴起于东方,曲阜一带曾为商人旧都,即使在迁殷之后,他们仍然与这里联系密切。直到周初,这里依然是殷商势力极重的地区。周族自西方发展起来,他们在取代殷商之后,要想很好地统治天下,就不能不把东方作为统治的重点,因此,可以说鲁国受封之地是他们首先要考虑的战略要地。这里距王都较远,东南沿海地区的淮夷以及徐戎等也没有立即臣服于周。武庚叛乱时,"殷东国五侯"群起叛乱,奄国及其附近各部都是周公东征的主要对象,史籍中所谓“攻商盖”、“攻九夷”(《韩非子·说林上》)、“灭国者五十”(《孟子·滕文公下》)都是在这些地区。甚至伯禽被封于曲阜后,“淮夷、徐戎及商奄又叛”(《艺文类聚》卷十二引《帝王世纪》)。欲很好地镇抚东方,把这里作为周室堡垒是非常合适的。

    伯禽受封时,周室为鲁国制定了“启以商政,疆以周索”的治国方针,并分给鲁国“殷民六族”,使之“职事于鲁”(《左传》定公四年)。这样,伯禽一支所带来的周文化与殷遗民及当地土著固有的文化相互交汇、影响,共同形成鲁国的文化。

    第二,鲁文化的特殊地位与鲁国在当时诸侯国中的特殊地位是统一的。

    鲁国虽是周王朝分封的一个邦国,但它却是一个非同寻常的邦国。鲁自周初始封,历西周、春秋、战国,到公元前249年为楚国所灭,历时七、八百年,在当时的政治、文化舞台上扮演了十分重要的角色。

    鲁国的始封之君是周公的长子,而周公无论在帮助武王争夺天下,还是在成王年幼时平定天下以及辅助成王,都有卓著的功勋,他在周初政治中的地位十分显赫。因此,鲁国初封时不仅受赐丰厚,而且相对于他国来说还得到了不少特权。鲁国可以“世世祀周公以天子之礼乐”,《礼记·明堂位》也说:“凡四代之器、服、官,鲁兼用之。是故,鲁,王礼也,天下传之久矣。”从文献记载以及考古材料综合考察,这种记载应该是可信的。如周王室的职官“宗伯”、“太宰”、“大司徒”等,鲁即有之。如替国君掌管祭祀的“宗伯”,其他国家只称“宗”或“宗人”,有“宗伯”之称的只有周王室和鲁国。又,“鲁得立四代之学”(《礼记·明堂位》孔颖达疏),鲁还有四代之乐。恐怕这都是鲁国特有的现象。

    鲁国受封的同时或者稍后,周王室在东方又分封了一些小国,这些小国有的即为鲁的附庸,有的则以鲁国为“宗国”。时至春秋王室衰微,礼坏乐崩之际,许多小国依然纷纷朝鲁,并且到鲁国学礼、观礼。在东方夷人势力较重的地区,鲁国始终不忘“尊尊而亲亲”的原则,使鲁国的政权一直掌握在“伯禽”之后的周人手中,鲁国较

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