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    和尚顶灯舞

    和尚顶灯舞


    来源:中国民俗文化网   文章作者:佚名  点击次数:

      所谓和尚顶灯舞,是由身着鹅黄色僧袍、披大红袈裟的和尚头顶粗瓷大碗,碗里直立一根又粗又长的红蜡烛。说它是舞,一点也不过分,因为它借鉴了杂技、体操等艺术形式,使和尚顶灯成为一种动态的艺术。在表演时,和尚们聚精会神,意念纯真,放在光头上的大碗纹丝不动。灯节之夜,烛光闪烁,摇曳的蜡火与闪金泛红的和尚服相映成趣。众和尚迈着唐宋舞步,在节奏不断变化的鼓点声中穿梭游动,变换队形。正月是玩耍社火的高峰期,每当和尚顶灯舞一出现,观众的兴头会立即达到高潮,喝彩助威声经久不断。随着和尚顶灯队伍的前行,观赏的人群象潮水一样涌动。和尚顶灯是正月十五最具吸引力的社火活动。

      表演顶灯舞的和尚,并不是真正的佛门弟子,而是三门峡市湖滨区崖底乡向阳村的农民。他们修得顶灯真功,使头、眼、颈、手、腰、腿、脚协调一致。整个舞蹈节奏明快,自始至终动作整齐。这种技术性要求特别高的社火功夫,大多得力于村中老年人的传授。

      关于这种社火活动的源起时代,从三门峡市文化局石丙旭搜集整理的资料来看,顶灯在东汉明帝十年就已经出现。当时,郎中蔡倍奉旨到西域天竺国(今印度)邀沙门摄摩腾、竺法兰二位高僧到京都洛阳传讲佛经。佛祖释迎牟尼赐给这二位门徒两件宝物,一是白马,二是佛灯。意为让这二位高憎走遍天下,传播佛经,指点迷津,普渡众生,破除黑暗,光大佛门。两位高僧行至陕州(现三门峡市)时,竺法兰梦中得到佛祖指示:"此地物华天宝,民风古朴,人心虔诚,可宏佛门。"竺法兰高僧为宣扬佛经通博,法力无边,当着众人之面,将心爱的宝物佛灯抛向空中。妻时,陕州城内外一片光明,如同白昼。一幅"佛灯照顶,永光永寿"的条幅,从闪闪发光的空中飘落下来。人们认为这是天意,便纷纷从家里走出,到寺庙里做了僧人。陕州城的和尚,尤其是方丈、住持,常常头顶油灯颂读经文,以此纪念竺法兰高僧。后来陕州城的百姓也纷纷仿效,慢慢形成了一种自娱自乐的社火形式。


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