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    中国奇特的跪拜礼

    中国奇特的跪拜礼


    来源:中国民俗文化网   文章作者:佚名  点击次数:

        在一些反映古代历史的戏剧和电影中,我们经常看到古代人民行跪拜礼。为什么会产生这样的生活礼节呢?这要从古代人们的物质条件和生活习惯谈起。
       
        我国在汉以前,还没有正式的凳椅。人们在进食、议事、看书时,只是在地上铺一条用芦苇、竹篾等编成的铺垫用具,即席子,人就坐在席子上,故称“席地而坐”。如果请客人坐正席,则多垫一重席子,表示恭敬。就连朝廷的最高统治者也是“席地而坐”,不过,所坐的东西比普通老百姓好一些,如周代每次举行大朝觐时,五者所坐的席位,设有绣着黑白斧形的屏风,屏风前面南向铺设着莞草编成的席子,上面再加上五彩蒲席和桃枝竹席,左右摆设玉儿,给王者凭依。
       
        因此,古代所谓“坐”的姿势,和我们现代人的“坐”完全不一样。坐时要两膝着地,然后将臀部坐于后脚跟之上,脚掌向后向外。古人的“坐”,实际上就是我们现在的跪。在接待宾客中,每当“坐”着向客人致谢时,为了表示尊敬,往往伸直上半身,也就是“引身而起”,使坐变成了跪,然后俯身向下,就这样,逐渐形成了日常生活中的跪拜礼。
       
        古人认为,不跪不叫拜。拜,在古代就是行敬礼的意思。按照周代礼仪的规定,当时对跪拜的动作和对象,作了严格的规范,共分稽首、顿首、空首,称为“正拜”。行稽首礼时,拜者必须屈膝跪地,左手按右手,支撑在地上,然后,缓缓叩首到地,稽留多时,手在膝前,头在手后,这是“九拜”中最重的礼节。一般用于臣子拜见君王和祭祀先祖的礼仪。(后来,用于僧人举一手向人们行礼,也称“稽首”。“)
       
        行顿首礼时,其他和稽首相同,不同者拜时必须急叩头,其额触地而拜。一般用于下对上的敬礼。(“顿首”两首,后来也用于书信中的起头或末尾,也有首尾都用的,表示对人家恭敬。)
       
        行空首礼时,双膝着地,两手拱合,俯头到手,与心平而不到地,故称“空首”,又叫“拜手”。这是“九拜”中男子跪拜礼的一种。
       
        其他如振动,不仅要跪拜、顿首,拜后还要“踊”,即跳踊,一般都在丧事时,拜者往往捶胸、顿足,跳跃而哭,表示极度悲哀,凶拜,即行礼时,先顿首,后空首;吉拜,则在行礼时,先空首,后顿首;奇拜,奇为单数,即一拜;褒拜,即再拜、三拜。古代以再拜为重。
       
        肃拜,是古代女子跪拜礼的一种。拜时跪双膝后,两手先到地,再拱手,同时低下头去,到手为止,故又称“手拜”。肃,手到地的意思。所以后来在书信来往中,为了表示对对方的尊敬,往往上“谨肃”。妇女行礼也称“端肃”,即源于此。
       
        到了汉代以后。才渐渐有高座,凳椅先后问世,人们不再“席地而坐”,因而使原来生活中的“跪坐”起了很大变化。但跪拜礼仍然存在,却变成了等级差别的标志,主要广泛运用于官场之中。如臣子拜皇帝,小官拜大官,奴才拜主子等。有时都要行三叩九拜之礼。在民间,如祭祀、祝寿等风俗中,仍世代相传。后来,又增加了打千(行礼时左膝前屈,右腿后弯,上体稍向前俯,右手下垂)、作揖(两手合抱,拱手为礼)、鞠躬(弯身行礼)等礼节,直到辛亥革命胜利,随着几千年封建君主制度的覆灭,才结束了这种跪拜礼。


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