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    冬至祭典与消寒会

    冬至祭典与消寒会


    来源:中国民俗文化网   文章作者:佚名  点击次数:

        冬至,即“冬月长至”的意思。从这天开始,白天渐渐地长了。
       
        在古代岁时中,冬至被当作重大节日,有“冬至大于年”的说法。
       
        冬至这一天,皇帝要亲自举行郊祭(即祭天),百官要进表朝贺,所有礼仪一如年禧。
       
        清代,旗人为消灾祈福也要在冬至日祭天并祭祖。
       
        是日拂晓,主人将牺牲品大猪一口绑于当院,由屠宰的师傅掌刀宰杀,一刀毕命方为“吉祥”,然后不加任何调料,将整块猪肉在大锅里煮,谓之“白肉”。
       
        各家祭天规模不一,一般只是姑表近亲来贺,盛大的才是任人来贺。由于贺客多骑马而来,祭时要将所有马鞭捆在一起,多者足有小吊桶般粗。贺客不论与主人相识与否,亦不用送礼,只须“道喜”就可参加祭典并分享“神余”,即撤下来的白肉。
       
        祭天时,在矮桌上设“天地神码”或牌位,用桦木大漆盘盛白肉为供,主人焚香上表,来贺者一一叩首随礼。然后再祭“祖宗杆子”,其杆设于院中,高达10米。杆顶制成葫芦形,稍下有一斗拱,谓之“刁斗”,斗下悬一旗。祭后,将猪肠、猪尿泡等下水均扔在刁斗上,自会有鸟来啄食。
       
        祭罢,主人与贺客一起席地而坐,共享神余。肉不能放在磁碗里,而只能放在大红朱漆的肉槽子里,肉是整方的,并未切削成片,须要客人自己动手切削,再以桦木筷箸夹在小桦木碗里。
       
        主人不预备任何调料,客人们就取出事前准备好的“油纸”(以极纯净的酱油提炼成的薄膜),假作擦试刀碗,经热汤一噱立刻化为精品酱油,与汤汁混在一起。这是满族人在关外形成的习俗,据说皇帝请群臣吃白肉时也是这种吃法。
       
        南人在京宦游者,亦有设筵祭祀祖先的,同时也邀请同僚或挚友在一起聚餐、聚饮。燕俗则不重冬祭,但冬至“进九”之后,文人雅士每逢“九”日都有不同规模的雅聚,谓之“消寒会”,其与会人数必取“明九”与“暗九”(如十八、二十七等)之数。文人们坐炉旁吟诗作画,以为娱乐。其诗词字画亦必应“九”之典,如以唐诗即席书画,则取白居易《问刘十九》诗“绿蚁新醅酒,红泥小火炉。晚来天欲雪,能饮一杯无?”画12人于雪窗前对酌,童子地下扇火温酒,这样,恰与消寒雅聚的意境贴切。
       
        饮酒时,亦必以“九”或与“九”相关之事物为酒令。最后则以九盘九碗或“花九件”的便席为餐。此亦当年一大乐事。


    ·上一篇文章:先“嫁”后“娶”的婚俗
    ·下一篇文章:四月初八赶天狗


     

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