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    西藏传统的禁忌及其变化

    西藏传统的禁忌及其变化


    来源:网络   文章作者:佚名  点击次数:

    在历史的长河只们通过约定俗成,形成了很多日常生活中能做什么,不能做什么的种种禁忌。这些禁忌有些受传统观念的束缚,有些受宗教信仰的影响,有些属于封建社会遗留下来的习俗,有些可说是来自对生活实践的总结。近40多年来,随着社会经济的变革,这些禁忌也正在发生变化。

    传统的各类禁忌综述如下:

    ***
    人和人名的禁忌
     
      在传统的昌都社会中,把人分为高贵而神圣的人和下贱而不洁净的人两大类,前者包括达官贵人、活佛、格西喇嘛、尼姑;后者包括打旱獭为生者、屠夫、严重传染病者、寡妇、鳏夫等。
      解放前,昌都地区的达官贵人,高高在上,在日常生活中一般不接触贫民百姓。有时路过村庄或到百姓家中,百姓只能低头弯腰,不敢抬头望其面容。信教者把活佛、格西喇嘛比作“上人”,在心目中占据着重要位置。因此,在任何时候不允许世俗人任意触摸僧人用的法器,跨过喇嘛的袈裟,与僧人同坐等。到尼姑寺朝佛,忌讳世俗人与尼姑戏笑,随便进入禅房等。
      人们认为旱獭是土地神的宠物,不能伤害。俗话说“点百盏酥油灯,也难赎从旱獭身上拔一根毛的罪孽”。因此,人们禁忌打旱獭者进入房屋或帐篷中。

      农村牧区的人们忌讳与屠夫接触或交往。但到秋天人们又不得不请屠夫前来秋杀(秋季宰牲)。但屠夫吃剩的食物一律倒掉,甚至屠夫接触过的茶壶、锅碗等也要通过熏柏枝烟,以消除不洁。
      对患有麻疯等严重传染病者,人们会强制把患者安置在偏僻的地段,与村民隔绝往来,直到死亡,死后就地挖坑埋掉。家人给患者送食物时,把食物放在离患者住地较远的地方,让患者自己来取。患者触摸过的餐具忌讳再用。

      在农村牧区,妇女的一些活动也受到禁忌的限制,人们忌讳孕妇串门,或进入别人的帐篷。担心会弄脏灶神,失去福气。妇女月经期忌讳与男人有身体上的接触,避免进入寺院或其它圣洁的地方,否则将使自己的男人降低气数。日常朝佛时,禁忌妇女进入护法神殿,怕触犯护法神,给村里人带来灾难。大年初一忌讳妇女串门,否则认为这一年会不吉不顺。办喜事时忌讳年轻寡妇进新房。在贡觉三岩等地,严禁寡妇、鳏夫参加集体性的祭奠、祭祀等活动。在农牧区,一到下午忌讳不熟悉的妇女串入房门或帐篷,认为这种女人身上带有邪气;如果要进房,经主人同意后,客人手中必须握牛粪或一根柴,以示防邪气和不洁。
      在传统的昌都社会中,多数妇女都是备受社会欺压歧视的对象。正如昌都流行的一句民间谚语所言,“百名男人中,只有一个是人妖,而百名女人中,只有一位是仙女”。有些妇女被视为是妖魔鬼怪,忌讳小孩吃她们给的食物,忌讳听到此类过世女人的名字,担心因此带来灾祸。

      人的名字只是一个代号,供人们相互认识、相互呼唤。但从古到今也有许多被人们所禁忌的人名。禁忌的人名大体可分为两大类:一种是属于崇高而神圣的人名,另一种是在民间被视为是受不洁净的人名。

      解放前,由于受封建社会地位不平等制度的影响,有准人们直呼高僧及高官贵人的名字。就喇嘛的名字而言,有三种不同的名字,即俗名、简名和法名。如第十世帕巴拉的俗名称罗桑土登,法名称米旁·次成坚参(意为超群的菩萨圣者),而人们通常只能称呼为“帕钦仁波钦”(意为至高无上的师宝)。同样对达官贵人也只能称呼“奔波仁波钦”(至高无上的官人)。
      昌都地区还忌讳年青人直接喊长辈的名字,忌讳媳妇直接道公公、婆婆的名字,认为直道其名是对长辈的不尊。藏族有请活佛高僧为孩子取名的传统习惯,但若孩子接连早夭,为避免小孩再夭折,对活下来的小孩忌讳唤活佛或高僧取的名字,认为孩子没有福分。为使小孩不再夭折和健康成长,家父另给孩子取些贱名,如小狗、狗崽子、狗屎、皮口袋等。

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