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    史上最全的绣花基础知识

    史上最全的绣花基础知识


    来源:网络   文章作者:佚名  点击次数:

      刺绣 俗称“绣花”,是在已经加工好的织物上,以针引线,按照设计要求进行穿刺,通过运针将绣线组织成各种图案和色彩的一种技艺。

      彩绣泛指以各种彩色绣线统制花纹图案的刺绣技艺,具有绣面平服、针法丰富、线迹精细、色彩鲜明的特点,在服装饰品中多有应用。彩绣的色彩变化也十分丰富,它以线代笔,通过多种彩色绣线的重叠、并置、交错产生华而不俗的色彩效果。尤其以套针针法来表现图案色彩的细微变化最有特色,色彩深浅融汇,具有国画的渲染效果。

      包梗绣主要特点是先用较粗的线打底或用棉花垫底,使花纹隆起,然后再用绣线绣没,一般采用平绣针法。包梗绣花纹秀丽雅致,富有立体感,装饰性强,又称高绣,在苏绣中则称凸绣。包梗绣适宜于绣制块面较小的花纹与狭瓣花卉,如菊花、梅花等,一般用单色线绣制。

      雕绣又称镂空绣,是一种有一定难度、效果十分别致的绣法。它的最大特点是在绣制过程中,按花纹需要修剪出孔洞,并在剪出的孔洞里以不同方法绣出多种图案组合,使绣面上既有洒脱大方的实地花,又有玲戏美观的镂空花,虚实相衬,富有情趣。绣品高雅、精致。

      贴布绣也称补花绣,是一种将其他布料剪贴绣缝在服饰上的刺绣形式。中国苏绣中的贴续绣也属这一类。其绣法是将贴花布按图案要求剪好,贴在绣面上,也可在贴花布与绣面之间衬垫棉花等物,使图案隆起而有立体感。贴好后,再用各种针法锁边。贴布绣绣法简单,图案以块面为主,风格别致大方。

      钉线绣又称盘梗绣或贴线绣,是把各种丝带、线绳按一定图案钉绣在服装或纺织品上的一种刺绣方法。常用的钉线方法有明钉和暗钉两种,前者针迹暴露在线梗上,后者则隐藏于线梗中。钉线绣绣法简单,历史悠久,其装饰风格典雅大方,近年来在和服中应用较多。

      珠片绣也称珠绣,它是以空心珠子、珠管、人造宝石、闪光珠片等为材料,绣缀于服饰上,以产生珠光宝气、耀眼夺目的效果,一般应用于舞台表演服上,以增添服装的美感和吸引力,同 时也广泛用于鞋面、提包、首饰盒等上面。

      十字绣也称十字挑花,是一种在民间广泛流传的传统刺绣方法。其针法十分简单,即按照布料的经纬定向,将同等大小的斜十字形线迹排列成设计要求的图案。由于其针法特点,十字绣的纹样一般造型简练,结构严谨,常呈对称式布局的图案风格。也有写实风格的纹样,题材多为自然花草。十字绣具有浓郁的民间装饰风格。

      绚带绣 也称扁带绣,是以丝带为绣线直接在织物上进行刺绣。绚带绣光泽柔美、色彩丰富、花纹醒目而有立体感,是一种新颖别致的和服装饰形式。

      抽纱绣是刺绣中很有特色的一个类别,其绣法是,根据设计图案的部位,先在织物上抽去一定数量的经纱和纬纱,然后利用布面上留下的布丝,用绣线进行有规律的编绕扎结,编出透孔的纱眼,组合成各种图案纹样。用抽纱绣绣面具有独特的网眼效果,秀丽纤巧,玲班剔透,装饰性很强。由于透制有一定难度,抽纱绣图案大多为简单的几何线条与块面,在一幅绣品中作精致细巧的点缀。

      戳纱绣又称纳锦,是传统刺绣形式之一。它是在方格纱的 底料上严格按格数眼进行刺绣的。戳纱绣不仅图案美丽,而且随 着线条横、直、斜的不同排列作丰富的变化,但花纹间的空眼必须对齐。


    ·上一篇文章:中国结
    ·下一篇文章:“风筝”原来是这么来的


     

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