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    民间剪纸:巧手中剪出的女性祈盼

    民间剪纸:巧手中剪出的女性祈盼


    来源:中国民俗文化网   文章作者:陈力  点击次数:

      【提要】女性是民间艺术尤其是剪纸艺术的主体。追踪剪纸题材的历史变迁,不难发现,随着社会的发展,随着女性地位的提高及女性意识的增强,剪纸的主题也由原来的传统内容扩大到与时代发展历史进步有诸多关联。剪纸有了有关性别平等女性社会价值提高等主题。这是社会进步的一种表达。

      因为剪纸参与者多为女性,因此有人称之为女性的艺术。“传统社会,剪纸成为女性人生角色扮演的重要构件,剪纸民俗也是女性文化形式之一。”(王贵生《剪纸民俗的文化阐释》北京大学出版社)。在北方很多地方,剪纸几乎成了妇女们必学的一门功课,成为她们表达自我参与社会的主要媒介,对很多女性而言,剪纸既是她们的语言,也是她们的人生。“是妇女就会剪纸,原来是这样的。因为她拿剪刀,现在可以这样说,就是拿剪刀的妇女都会剪纸。中国人拿剪刀的妇女就是两红”(靳之林)。

      剪纸通常表现出民间对生活的看法。(《剪出来的大师》主编王文章)中这样描述,“这一家女的属马的,给她剪上一朵花,代表女性,男的是属羊的,有一个旋代表男性。年是吉祥如意的象征,下面剪一个如意,就成了吉祥如意。儿子是属猴的,边上给他剪个蜜蜂和边上的马组合起来就是‘马上封侯’。这剪一个富贵花就是幸福的一家。猴子抱寿桃健康长寿。”民间艺人对生活的祝愿,很朴实也很美好。

      剪纸中充斥着大量的生殖崇拜内容,最简单的如“鱼戏莲“图案。其中,鱼与莲分别指代男与女,这是指男女交和。据研究者称在吉祥图案如“吉庆有余”“连年有余”,是生殖崇拜的表现,“狮子滚绣球”“猴吃桃”‘刘海戏金蟾““蝴蝶牡丹”“荷包扣碗”等都是生殖崇拜,“作为生命崇拜重要内容的生殖崇拜,是中国民间艺术包括民间剪纸的主要内容。”(《剪出来的大师》)

      传统剪纸还以人们的生活劳动自然景观风俗节日为题材。主要表达类似吉庆喜庆祥和的主题内容。它表达人们乐观的生活态度,追求幸福生活的愿望,以及性别观念。

      剪纸也具有地域性,民族性。地域不同,民族不同,剪纸的风格往往不同。比如满族剪纸中,观音也穿旗袍,灶王也戴毡帽。
    煎纸也反映民间的性别观念。过去,传统剪纸剪出的女性也有时受到封建观念的影响,表达出一些封建观念,如“三纲五常”等,“二十四孝图”、“三娘教子”就是两例。在封建社会中,“女性角色扮演受到严格的礼俗制约。温良恭俭,柔顺和婉,恪守贞洁坐立恭庄举止祥爱温柔娴静贤达不妒,都成为女性做人的基本准则”(王贵生《剪纸民俗的文化阐释》)。在这种条件下,剪纸塑造的妇女主要扮演传统角色,表现的妇女多是祈福祝寿祈子等。

      过去,剪纸本身,也成了衡量女子是否恪守女德,是否遵从封建礼教的工具。在传统社会,女性的一切都附属于传统道德之下,都要为道德服务。剪纸妇女处境不好。在贫苦的农村,在女性缺乏独立条件的年代,女性的才艺拯救不了自身的命运。
    民间剪纸更多表现两性和谐、女性孕育生命。比如,在甘肃剪纸大师祁秀梅的剪纸作品中,有大量表现阴阳和谐两性和谐的作品。比如《撇开的大牡丹与花瓶》《带籽牡丹花瓶》等作品。这些作品,都以比喻象征的手法,表现女性孕育生命,生命阴阳和谐,子孙满堂等意义。作品中每朵盛开的鲜花下都画着象征女性的花瓶。它的寓意是很明显的:女性具有极为重要的生命意义和价值。
    在《男欢女舞》和《抓龙男娃蹲莲花》中,作品以大量的表意符号,表现象征男性生命之根和女性生命之花的寓意,作品以充满活力的物象,表达生命的欢歌和对生命崇拜的意义。在作品中表达这样的寓意:两性和谐是生命飞扬的基础。

      更多的民间剪纸是表达女性祈福避邪的心愿,追求生活的美和善。

    (传统剪纸生殖崇拜的内容)摘自《剪纸大师祁秀梅》

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