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    最理想的饮茶器具──紫砂壶

    最理想的饮茶器具──紫砂壶


    来源:中国民俗文化网   文章作者:佚名  点击次数:

        饮茶习惯在我国有着悠久的历史,古代文人雅士平时经常聚集一起,且鼎且缶,以啜以饮,视为可获得无穷的情趣。据汉代《华阳国志》,司马相如《凡将篇》和杨雄的《方言》等书中记录了,武王伐纣时就出现将茶作为贡品,和反映西汉时代买茶、烹茶、饮茶的事,宋代大诗人王安石曾有“人固不可一日无茶饮”之语。可见饮茶在古代人们生活中占有很重要的地位。
       
        唐代以前,茶器与食器不分。随着饮茶风气更为普及,茶器并日趋工巧,唐代末年出现了饮茶最理想的茶壶──紫砂壶,以紫砂泥为原料,经艺人精心制作,其壶颜色紫红、质地细柔,造型古朴,泽地典雅,贵如鼎彝。宋代的紫砂壶已在文人中广为使用,大诗人欧阳修曾诗云:“喜共紫瓯吟且酌,羡君潇洒有余情。”诗中的“紫瓯”即紫砂壶。宋代后期到明代的宜兴紫砂生产的崛起,很快成为全国的紫砂器生产中心,在以后的数百年中,宜兴始终是一领中国紫砂壶制作风骚,直至今日。
       
        宜兴位于苏、浙、皖三省交界处,地处太湖之滨。古代称阳羡,唐代已是著名的产茶基地,许多名茶年年进贡,供皇府上下享用。唐代“茶仙”卢寺云:“天子须赏阳羡茶,百草不敢先开花。”因此,在宜兴很早就出现用丁山和蜀山的泥土,制作饮茶的紫砂壶。明人周高起的《阳羡茗壶录》一书中记载,明代嘉靖制紫砂器艺人龚春的出现,把中国紫砂器推进到一个新的境界。龚春本名“供春”,少时为吴颐山的伴僮,当吴颐山的金沙寺读书时,他就偷闲出来,私访金沙和尚,精淘细土,勤于折捏制,终成大家。龚春成宜兴紫砂制作的一代宗师后,他的作品被称为“供春壶”,当时有“供春之壶,胜于金玉”之美称。从此,宜兴紫砂器生产发展迅速,百品竟新,名家辈出。
       
        清代中期,“西泠八家”之一的陈鸿寿加入紫砂壶设计制作过程,使集书法、绘画、工艺为一体的紫砂壶刚问世,就赢得社会肯定,称赞“曼生壶”是中国紫砂壶制作历史中的又一个里程碑。此后,许多书画家参与紫砂壶的绘画和书法,诸如海上画派盟主任伯年和吴昌硕,为热恋紫砂壶,曾几乎荒废本业。这一习俗至今沿袭。


    ·上一篇文章:北京皮影
    ·下一篇文章:冯骥才:民间工艺不能盲目借鉴,更不能把“手艺”丢掉


     

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