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    “泥人张”与惠山泥人

    “泥人张”与惠山泥人


    来源:中国民俗文化网   文章作者:佚名  点击次数:

        民间艺人用天然的或廉价的材料,能够作出精美小巧的工艺品,博得民众的喜爱。在明清以后,民间彩塑赢得了老百姓的青睐,其中最著名的是天津的"泥人张"和无锡的惠山泥人。
       
        "泥人张"是北方流传的一派民间彩塑,它创始于清代末年。"泥人张"创始人叫张明山,生于天津,家境贫寒,从小跟父亲以捏泥人为业,养家糊口。张明山心灵手巧,富于想象,时常在集市上观察各行各业的人,在戏院里看多种角色,偷偷地在袖口里捏制。他捏制出来的泥人居然个个逼真酷似,一时传为佳话。张明山继承传统的泥塑艺术,从绘画、戏曲、民间木版年画等姊妹艺术中吸收营养。经过数十年的辛勤努力,一生中创作了一万多件作品。他的艺术独具一格而蜚声四海,老百姓都喜爱他的作品,亲切地送给他一个昵称:泥人张。
       
        张明山的泥人,有民间故事中的人物,也有小说戏曲中的角色,有表现劳动人民现实生活中瞬间的形象,有正面人物,还有反面人物。他的作品具有浓厚的趣味性。例如他塑造的《蒋门神》,就非常传神。蒋门神像通高只有11厘米,人头不过蚕豆大小,却是有个性而令人可憎的形象,生动地呈现在读者眼前。只见这个流氓恶棍,双手背在身后,蛮横地腆着肚皮,一副霸悍相,他如同一头狰狞的怪兽,随时随地都可能向人施发狂暴。青筋露起的脖颈,满面杀气的面孔,眉目上挑,嘴角下撇,把一个恶霸刻画得淋漓尽致。泥人张对反面人物的刻画,表现了对恶势力的揭露和抨击。这个蒋门神不是肖像写生,但造形比较准确,塑法娴熟有力,充分体现了作者高度的写实能力。泥人张善于在泥塑中运用绘画技巧,使泥塑单纯雅致,富于装饰趣味,作品透出一种明快清新的气息,也表现了弃恶扬善的道德意义。
       
        与北方"泥人张"形成对照和呼应的是江苏无锡的惠山泥人。惠山泥人产生的时间很早,现在已无从可知其确切时间了。
       
        在这里,一到农闲季节,几乎家家都作泥人,自古有"家家善塑,户户会彩"的说法。每逢过年,在庙会和集市上,人们托个盘子,盘子里放着自己作的泥人到处叫卖,这也是农家的一份收入。在清代,惠山有袁、朱、钱等姓的专业作坊。彩塑师王春林制作五盘泥孩儿进献,得到清代乾隆皇帝的赞赏。清同治到光绪年间,出现大量戏剧为题材的戏文泥人,这也是惠山泥人历史上最昌盛的时期。这一时期,惠山有作坊、店铺四十多家,专业匠师三十多人。在慈禧太后六十大寿时,地方官把一套大型手捏戏文泥人《蟠桃会》供奉内廷,从此惠山泥人成为贡品。
       
        惠山泥人有粗货、细货之分。粗货为玩具,用模具翻制,大批量生产;细货手捏而成,制作精细。题材多为戏曲人物,或祈福避邪的春牛、老虎、大阿福、寿星等。惠山泥人造型丰满、简练,夸大头部,着重刻画表情。匠人特别重视彩绘,有所谓"三个坯子七分画"之说。常用的色彩有大红、绿、金黄、青等原色,对比强烈,主次分明。如果说泥人张的作品清新雅致,那么惠山泥人则鲜明艳丽。
       
        泥塑艺术是中华民族民间艺术的一种,它早已走出国门,成为中外文化交流的使者,远涉重洋,为越来越多的国家和人民所接受和珍爱。


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